Wednesday, July 02, 2008

Raw Data - Psalm allusions in the NT

Update: hang on while I develop this further - a progressive continuously updated post... (July 8 and I am done for now - only a week of spare time plugging.)
This is part of my search for the Hebrew-Greek divide and the creative use of the text to translate culture and language to a new day. (See this post for the stimulus from BBB.)

Note - missing psalm 106:20 cited in Romans 1; maybe psalm 17:4 in the prayer of Jesus in John 17

This is one small step closer to trying to see how the NT authors used the Psalter. All to be examined in more detail - but first this possibly useful list (extracted from Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament: A Complete Survey by Gleason L. Archer and G.C. Chirichingo.) There are some errors and omissions in that text. I checked and added to the list from the references in the old Jerusalem Bible (1962). Anyone know of a good book on this subject?

I have listed 130 or so allusions depending on how you count them. Just over 60 of the Psalms are referenced or have a recognizable allusion in 15 of the books of the NT. Even on a first pass, some of them are questionable and I dropped them. And I have no doubt that even from these two 'authorities', I will differ and maybe see both more and less than they cite. And there are several I would have missed at least on a first pass. There must be a more determined method which I will try and discover.

Matthew (18)
Mark (8)
Luke (11)
John (8)
Acts (10)
Romans (17)
1-2 Corinthians (4 /2)
Ephesians (4)
Hebrews (25)
1-2 Timothy (1 /1)
1-2 Peter (8 / 1)
Revelation (12)

Romans, Hebrews, and 1 Peter seem to have the highest concentration.

Verses may be off by 1, since I have not been careful to avoid the confusion between Hebrew and English verse numbering. Blue - Royal; Red - Passion, Green Hebrews which seems to specialize in Psalm references.

PsalmNT ReferenceComment & very rough reminder of text
1:3Revelation 22:2like a tree, leaves for healing - see also Ezekiel 47:12, leaves do not wither
then he shall be like a tree
transplanted by streams of water
that gives its fruit in its time
and its leaf does not fade
and in all that it does it shall prosper
2:1-2Revelation 19:19, Acts 4:25-26Why such noise from nations
And peoples muttering in vain
2:7Acts 13:33, Hebrews 1:5, 5:5see also 2 Samuel 7:14
The LORD said to me My son are you
I this day have brought you forth
2:9Revelation 2:26-27, 12:5 19:15Note difference with LXX shepherd = Revelation 'rule'
You will break them with sceptre of iron
as vessel of a potter they will be shattered
4:5Ephesians 4:26Be angry, but do not sin
LXX has be angry
Tremble and do not be missing the goal
speak with your heart on your bed and be still
5:10Romans 3:13For there is not in their mouth faithfulness
their belly a chasm
a sepulcre open their neck
their tongue deceives
6:9Matthew 7:23depart from me workers of evil...
Leave me all workers of sorrow
for heard has the LORD the voice of my weeping
8:3Matthew 11:25, 21:16praise of children
our Lord how majestic is your name
in all the earth that is chanted
your splendour above the heavens
by the mouth of children and nurselings
8:5-7Hebrews 2:6-9, 1 Corinthians 15:27, Ephesians 1:22little lower than the angels
What is humanity that you remember
and a child of dust that you visit?
You give it reign over the works of your hands
all you put under its feet.
10:7Romans 3:14his mouth full and treachery and oppression
under his tongue mischief and emptiness
14:1-3Romans 3:11-12Nothing doing good
16:8-11Acts 2:25-28. 2:31, 13:26, 13:35not let your holy one see corruption
for you will not abandon my life to the place of the dead
You will not allow your righteous to see a pit
17:15Revelation 22:4face to face
I in righteousness will see your face
I will be satisfied to awaken in your likeness
18:50Romans 15:9see also 2 Samuel 22:50
therefore I will give you thanks among the nations O LORD
and to your name I will sing praises
19:5Romans 10:18praise among the nations
but in all the earth has gone out their lineage
and to the end of the world their utterance
22:2Matthew 27:46, Mark 15:34My God My God Why have you abandoned me
distant from my salvation words of my groaning
22:8Matthew 27:43Trust in the LORD let him deliver him
let him snatch him for he delights in him
22:19John 19:24, Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:24they will part my clothing among them
and on my garment they will cast lots
22:23Hebrews 2:12I will declare your name to my kin
in the midst of the congregation I will praise you (see also 35:18, 40:9, 149:1)
24:11 Corinthians 10:26to the LORD the earth and her fullness
27:5Revelation 7:15-16in a day of trouble he will hide me in a secret of his tent
31:6Luke 23:46, Acts 7:59into your hands I will entrust my spirit
you have redeemed me O LORD God of truth
32:1-2Romans 4:7-8happy lifted up transgression covered sin
happy human not will consider the LORD - to him iniquity
34:91 Peter 2:3taste and see for good is the LORD
34:13-171 Peter 3:10-12Man - who is it desiring life loving days to see good
nip your tongue from evil
and your lips from speaking deceit
stay from evil and do good
seek peace and hunt for it
eyes those of the LORD on the righteous
and his ears on their cry for help
face that of the LORD
against those doing evil
34:20John 19:36sheltering all his bones
one from them not will be broken
35:19John 15:25those hating me for nothing
36:1Romans 3:18there is no fear of God before his eyes
37:51 Peter 5:7, 1 Thessalonians 5:24the effectiveness of trust
37:11Matthew 5:5the poor will inherit the earth
37:18Matthew 6:8on the LORD knowing needs
39:121 Peter 2:11for a stranger I am to you
a dweller as all my ancestors
look at me and I will smile
before I go and there is no me
40:6-8Hebrews 10:5-7sacrifice and offering you did not desire
ears you have dug to me
burnt offering and sin offering not did you desire
then I said Here I come
in the roll of the writing
is inscribed of me to do your will my God
41:10John 13:18even a man of my peace that I trusted
in him eating my bread
has magnified against me a heel
42:6, 12, 43:5Matthew 26:38, Mark 14:34My soul is distressed - I think this is a bit of a stretch - more like a resonance than an allusion.
44:23Romans 8:36all the day we are considered as sheep for slaughter
45:7-8Hebrews 1:8-9your throne O God to the age and for ever
a sceptre of equity the sceptre of your kingdom
You have loved righteousness and hate wickedness
therefore has anointed you God your God with oil of rejoicing with your companions
49:8Matthew 16:26, Romans 3:24What can be offered in exchange for a life
49:171 Timothy 6:7for
not in his death will he take the all
it will not descend after him his glory
50:14Hebrews 13:15Offer the sacrifice of thanksgiving
offer to God thanksgiving
and pay to the Most High your vows
50:17Romans 2:17-24Allusive only - not a citation
what is it to you to recount my statutes
and that you would take of my covenant
in your mouth
and you hate correction
and cast my words behind you

51:4Romans 3:4so you are right to speak
you are clear to judge
53:1-3Romans 3:11-12Nothing doing good - not a single one.
55:7Revelation 12:6behold I will be far off to retreat and stay in the wilderness
55:221 Peter 5:7Throw to the LORD your gift and he will contain you (these off the wall literalisms make you think - don't they!)
56:11Hebrews 13:6I will trust I will not fear
what does a human to me
62:13Matthew 16:27, Romans 2:6, 2 Timothy 4:14and to you O Lord there is mercy
for you complete a man according to his works
see also Proverbs 24:12
68:19Ephesians 4:8-10you are gone up on high
captives you have captured
you have received gifts of humanity
even the rebellious in the tent of Yah God
69:5John 15:25Note the use of law for the psalms in John.
more than the hairs of my head are those hating me for nothing
69.10Romans 15:3, John 2:17for jealousy your house has eaten me up
and the reproaches of those reproaching you have fallen on me
69:21Matthew 27:34, 48they gave for my food venom
and in my thirst they gave drink vinegar
69:23-24Romans 11:9-10let their table become in their faces a trap
and in their peace a snare
let be darkened their eyes from seeing
and their loins continually shake
69:25Acts 1:20let their home become desolate
in their tents let no one be living
78:2Matthew 13:35I will open with insight my mouth
ferment riddles from of old
78:24John 6:31and had rained on them manna
and the corn of heaven he gave to them
82:6John 10:34I said gods are you
and children of the Most High all of you
surely as humans you will die
86:9-10Revelation 15:4all nations whom you made will come and worship
before your face O Lord and glorify your name
for great are you and do wonders
you O God you alone
Acts 13:22
Revelation 1:5
Surely I firstborn will make him
on high with the kings of the earth
90:42 Peter 3:8for a thousand years in your eyes
like a day recent for it is past
and a watch in the night
91:11-12Matthew 4:6, Luke 4:10-11; Hebrews 1:14for his messengers he will instruct over you
to keep you in all your ways
in their hands they will lift you up
in case you will strike with a stone your foot
91:13Luke 10:19on a lion and adder you will walk
you will trample a young lion and dragon
94:111 Corinthians 3:20The LORD knows the thoughts of a human
that they are emptiness
94:14Romans 11:12for not will cast off the LORD his people
and his inheritance he will not forsake
95:7-11Hebrews 3:7-11, 15, 4:7, 4:3-5today if his voice you hear do not harden your hearts
as in strife as the day of testing in the wilderness and so on...
97:7Hebrews 1:6worship him, all gods
102:25-26Hebrews 1:10-12in the presence of the earth you established
and the work of your hands the heavens
these will perish but you you will stand
and they all like clothing will decay as a garment
you will change them and they will be changed
but you he and your years will not end
104:4Hebrews 1:7making his messengers winds
his ministers a flaming fire
104:12Matthew 13:32, Mark 4:32, Luke 13:19on them a bird of the heavens settles between flights
107:9Luke 1:53For he has satisfied a life longing
and a life hungry he has filled with good
109:8Acts 1:20let his days be short and his office let take another
110:1Matthew 22:44, Acts 2:34-35, Hebrews 1:13, 10:12-13, 1 Peter 3:22a proclamation of the LORD to my Lord sit at my right hand
till I will make your enemies a stool for your feet
110:4Hebrews 5:6, 7:17, 21Has sworn the LORD and not will he repent
you a priest for ever of the order of my king of righteousness
111:2Revelation 15:3see also Deuteronomy 32:4, Jeremiah 10:6, Amos 3:13, Psalm 145:17
Great are the works of the LORD
112:92 Corinthians 9:9prodigal of love he gave to the poor
his righteousness standing in perpetuity
116:101 Corinthians 4:13, 2 Corinthians 4:13I believed so I spoke
I was afflicted greatly
117:1Romans 15:11Praise the LORD all nations
be free in him all the peoples
118:6Hebrews 13:6LORD to me - not will I fear
what will do to me a human
118:22-23Matthew 21:42, Mark 12:10-11, Luke 20:17, Acts 4:11, 1 Peter 2:7A stone they rejected the builders
becomes to a head of a corner
from the LORD becomes this
It is marvelous in our eyes
118:25-26Matthew 21:9, Mark 11:9-10, John 12:13, Matthew 23:39, Luke 13:35, 19:38Now LORD Save Please Now LORD Send prosperity Please
Blessed coming in the name of the LORD
131:2Matthew 18:3, Mark 10:15, Luke 9:48becoming as a child
132:11Acts 2:30Sworn has the LORD of David truth - he will not turn from her
of the fruit of your belly will I set on your throne
132:18Luke 1:69I will cause to sprout a horn Of David
her enemies I will clothe with shame
135:14Hebrews 10:30the Lord will judge his people
140:4Romans 3:13they have sharpened their tongues as a serpent
poison of an adder under their lips
143:2Romans 3:20for he will not be righteous in your presence anyone living
145:17Revelation 15:3-4Righteous is the Lord in all his ways
148:1Mark 11:10Praise him in the highest heights; Job 16:19


Ian said...

Dear Bob,
Your "raw data" list of psalm allusions in the New Testament was helpful for an article I'm writing for Here's my question: are there any allusions to psalms in the Old Testament? I'm certain there must be, but a quick search didn't find any.

Thanks for your help!
Ian Doescher

Bob MacDonald said...

Ian - I am glad it has been useful. As you can guess I am far from complete in this matter. I am searching to feel as the early writers felt so that I can understand their allusions even when there are only hints.

As to the TNK - yes there are uses of the Psalms in the OT. Some Psalms come from outside the psalter - e.g. 2 Samuel 22 and Psalm 18. It has been suggested by Jerome Creach that the Book of Consolation (Isaiah 40-56) has many allusions to the 4th book of Psalms - but I have not seen anyone prove it yet. Proof for me would be the same words/concepts in the same sequence in the two literary bodies.

I can't recommend a book for your specific task. It might be difficult to say when a particular text was written or redacted - so the question is who is quoting whom? Would second Isaiah be using an early version of the Psalter, or would the final redactor of the Psalms be collecting psalms around the promise of the consolation of Israel.

A good word study would be the relation between the Hebrew naham (נחם ) and the Greek paraclete - note particularly the story of Simeon in Luke - looking for the consolation of Israel and of course the promise of the Comforter, the Holy Spirit. The reason I mention this is that If Isaiah was copying the Psalter, then the idea of comforter is early, if the other way, then it is post exilic. Simeon's character then stands as one taking hope from a more recent past or a more distant past - though perhaps both of course. There is movement in the use of this word from God's repentance or sighing (OT) to God's advocacy (NT). Of course with the fullness of Jesus, God has nothing to repent of - for in him he is well pleased!

Bob MacDonald said...

Ian - much later. There are allusions to the psalms in Job. One recent student has this as his thesis. See this link from my review of the Oxford Psalms conference